Reprogramming Macrophages by Nanoparticles

Macrophage reprogramming plays an essential role in maintaining the steady state of the immune system and is involved in the processes of many diseases. Nanoparticles can perturb the polarization and reprogramming of macrophages, affect their immunological function and, therefore, affect the pathological process of disease. Creative Biolabs has organized a staff of outstanding scientists who have engaged in reprogramming macrophages for many years. Based on our cutting-edging Macrophage Therapeutics Development Platform, optimally designed nanoparticles for the modulation of macrophage reprogramming will provide new solutions for treating diseases.

Employing Nanoparticles for Macrophage Reprogramming

As one of the most effective cell types in the emergency response system of the human body, macrophages modulate host defense, inflammatory processes, and homeostasis. With powerful abilities of cell engulfment, antigen presentation and cytokine secretion, macrophages govern the initiation and resolution stages of innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophages are vital regulators of the host defense in organisms. In response to different local microenvironments, resting macrophages (M0) can be polarized into different phenotypes, pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2), and perform different roles in different physiological or pathological conditions.

With unique physicochemical characteristics, nanoparticles are widely used in the biomedical field for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nanoparticles are foreign substances, and macrophages play crucial roles in the recognition, processing, and clearance of nanoparticles in vivo. M0, M1 and M2 have distinct uptake capacities for nanoparticles. Meanwhile, nanoparticles can differentially modulate macrophage polarization and reprogramming. Interactions of nanoparticles with macrophages are attracting more and more attention in medical applications and toxicological studies.

Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the uptake of miR-223-encapsulated in hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) nanoparticles. Fig.1 Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the uptake of miR-223-encapsulated in hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) nanoparticles. (Tran, 2016)

Reprogramming Macrophages by Nanoparticles at Creative Biolabs

Previous studies have shown that nanoparticles can induce M0 macrophage toward M1 phenotype or M2 phenotype, such as the usage of cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for reprogramming macrophages. Nanoparticles can induce inflammation in the animal models via M1 polarization and the expression of M2 subtype markers can be markedly increased on the surface of bioactive nanoparticles. Creative Biolabs has a highly experienced team of scientists and quality staff that have a long history in the study of nanoparticles for macrophage reprogramming. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, including chemical composition, size, and surface coatings, can differentially regulate macrophage polarization.

Super paramagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticle (SPIONs), glyco-nanoparticles (self-assembled by three sugars, galactopyranoside, mannopyranoside and fucopyranoside), polystyrene nanoparticles with surface carboxyl-(PS-COOH) and amino-(PS-NH2) groups are available at Creative Biolabs forreprogramming M2 phenotype to M1 phenotype. While for reprogramming M1 phenotype to M2 phenotype, Targeted mRNA Nanoparticles, IL-4-expressing plasmid DNA-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) nanoparticles, IL-10-expressing plasmid DNA-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) nanoparticles, IL-10-expressing plasmid DNA-encapsulated Tuftsin-modified alginate nanoparticles, miR-223-expressing plasmid DNA-encapsulated hyaluronic acid-poly(ethyleneimine) nanoparticles are good choices.

Creative Biolabs is well equipped and versed in shifting macrophages from pro-inflammatory M1 toward anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype or from M2 to M1 by employing surface-functionalized nanoparticles. We continue to serve our global clients with professionalism and expertise in macrophage reprogramming. For more detailed information on macrophage reprogramming, please feel free to contact us or directly send us an inquiry.


  1. Tran, T.H.; et al. MicroRNA-223 induced repolarization of peritoneal macrophages using CD44 targeting hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for anti-inflammatory effects. PloS one. 2016, 11(5):e0152024.
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