Macrophage Characterization Services

With an experienced team of in-house human and mouse macrophage characterization experts, Creative Biolabs has explored a comprehensive portfolio of strategies to provide our clients with highly customizable solutions. From project design to result analysis, our seasoned scientists will work with you to develop a complete solution for our client's needs in macrophage characterization.

Pathways Differing Between Human and Mouse Macrophages

Great differences exist between human and mouse macrophages in arginine metabolism. Arginine is also metabolized by arginase to L-ornithine and urea. In mice, cytoplasmic arginase type-1 antagonizes the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in classically activated macrophages and is upregulated in alternatively activated macrophages. In this way, activation of arginase type-1 inhibits iNOS activation and tissue damage by pro-inflammatory agents associated with proinflammatory cytokines. While in humans, the arginase type-1 is constitutively expressed in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and its expression is insensitive to Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this enzyme is not induced by interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13 in human monocytes and macrophages in contrast to mouse cells.

LXRs, including LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2), are cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptors that suppress inflammatory signaling in macrophages. The functions of LXR may explain some of the anti-inflammatory functions acquired by macrophages after efferocytosis. Efferocytosis regulation is another difference existing between human and mouse macrophages. Studies have shown that the engagement of LXR signaling pathway in mouse macrophages stimulates macrophage reprogramming after efferocytosis leading to a pro-resolving profile. By contrast, in human macrophages, LXR activation may lead to a more complex and diverse response, not always associated with a resolution of inflammation.

Comparison of mouse and human pro-resolving macrophages. Fig.1 Comparison of mouse and human pro-resolving macrophages. (Saas, 2020)

Human/Mouse Macrophage Characterization Service at Creative Biolabs

Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population with high plasticity. The identity and function of macrophages can be influenced by resident tissue environment, exposure to activation signal and ontogeny. Previous studies have shed light on discrepancies between human and mouse macrophages. Moreover, the characterization of human macrophages may help their identification in different diseases and the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.

Creative Biolabs combines industry-leading expertise with an innovative Macrophage Development Platform to provide a full portfolio of high-quality macrophage characterization services, which focus on the difference analysis in morphology, phenotype, proliferation capability, phagocytosis capability, antigen presentation capability, and cytokine expression profile. Our customizable menu includes but is not limited to:

Creative Biolabs takes advantage of the Gimesa-Wright staining and lysosome staining to analyze the morphological difference among macrophages. This service is focused on offering staining techniques with enhanced dyes to deliver superior performance, aiding in morphological difference analysis among diverse macrophages.

Creative Biolabs utilizes the method of flow cytometry to analyze phenotype differences among diverse macrophages. In this service, we provide multiple types of cytometry such as multicolor conventional flow cytometry, spectral flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and improved multicolor flow cytometry. Moreover, we also deliver several choices on fluorochromes in cytometry, aiming to satisfy customers' multiple demands.

For the proliferative capability of macrophages, Creative Biolabs fusion employs a variety of proliferation approaches including cell metabolic activity analysis, DNA synthesis assay, ATP content detection, etc., to analyze macrophages from multiple dimensions.

As one of the major immune cells, macrophages' phagocytosis capacity plays a crucial role in numerous physiological and pathological processes. To examine macrophages' phagocytosis, Creative Biolabs takes advantage of a FITC-dextran uptake assay featuring excellent fluorescence effect and biocompatibility. Moreover, this service is inclusively appropriate for diverse samples such as different tissue source macrophages and cell lines.

In addition, as the main antigen-presenting cells, macrophages' antigen-presenting capacity is a promising therapeutic target in disease treatment. To aid in macrophage therapeutic projects, Creative Biolabs integrates the gold standard thymidine incorporation assay into our macrophages' antigen-presenting capacity analysis. With simple steps and our seasoned research teams, we have great confidence in delivering high-quality antigen-presenting capacity analysis outcomes.

Profiling cytokine expression patterns in macrophages offers valuable insights for studying their distinct characteristics. Accordingly, Creative Biolabs specifically delivers a sensitive and robust cytokine expression profile service incorporating real-time PCR assay or microarray assay for high-throughput analysis of the cytokine expression among macrophages.

Innovatively, Creative Biolabs incorporates the mass cytometry-based phagocytosis assay into our macrophage characterization services, which is able to achieve macrophage characterization at a single-cell level. In addition, this service possesses great potential in cellular biomarkers quantizing and cellular heterogeneity characterizing.

Macrophages are mechanical immune cells and function a lot in numerous physiological processes. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of their mechanical behavior is crucial for unraveling the intricacies of macrophage functionality. The single-cell mechanical characterization service from Creative Biolabs has great potency in studying the mechanical properties of macrophages. Furthermore, we have the ability to provide a wide range of well-equipped single-cell mechanical characterization approaches to support global customers' meaningful macrophage projects.

By leveraging the wealth of information that we have on macrophage characterization, Creative Biolabs is pleased to provide customized service to help our clients' meaningful projects. For more information, please feel free to contact us and further discuss with our scientists.


  1. Saas, P.; et al. Toward the characterization of human pro-resolving macrophages? Frontiers in Immunology. 2020, 11:3005.
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