With an experienced team of in-house human and mouse macrophage characterization experts, Creative Biolabs has explored a comprehensive portfolio of strategies to provide our clients with highly customizable solutions. From project design to result analysis, our seasoned scientists will work with you to develop a complete solution for our client's needs in macrophage characterization.
Great differences exist between human and mouse macrophages in arginine metabolism. Arginine is also metabolized by arginase to L-ornithine and urea. In mice, cytoplasmic arginase type-1 antagonizes the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in classically activated macrophages and is upregulated in alternatively activated macrophages. In this way, activation of arginase type-1 inhibits iNOS activation and tissue damage by pro-inflammatory agents associated with proinflammatory cytokines. While in humans, the arginase type-1 is constitutively expressed in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and its expression is insensitive to Th2 cytokines. Moreover, this enzyme is not induced by interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-13 in human monocytes and macrophages in contrast to mouse cells.
LXRs, including LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2), are cholesterol-sensing nuclear receptors that suppress inflammatory signaling in macrophages. The functions of LXR may explain some of the anti-inflammatory functions acquired by macrophages after efferocytosis. Efferocytosis regulation is another difference existing between human and mouse macrophages. Studies have shown that the engagement of LXR signaling pathway in mouse macrophages stimulates macrophage reprogramming after efferocytosis leading to a pro-resolving profile. By contrast, in human macrophages, LXR activation may lead to a more complex and diverse response, not always associated with a resolution of inflammation.
Fig.1 Comparison of mouse and human pro-resolving macrophages. (Saas, 2020)
Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population with high plasticity. The identity and function of macrophages can be influenced by resident tissue environment, exposure to activation signal and ontogeny. Previous studies have shed light on discrepancies between human and mouse macrophages. Moreover, the characterization of human macrophages may help their identification in different diseases and the development of innovative therapeutic approaches.
Creative Biolabs combines industry-leading expertise with an innovative Macrophage Development Platform to provide a full portfolio of high-quality macrophage characterization services, which focus on the difference analysis in morphology, phenotype, proliferation capability, phagocytosis capability, antigen presentation capability, and cytokine expression profile. Our customizable menu includes but is not limited to:
By leveraging the wealth of information that we have on macrophage characterization, Creative Biolabs is pleased to provide customized service to help our clients' meaningful projects. For more information, please feel free to contact us and further discuss with our scientists.