Reprogramming Macrophages by microRNA

The efficacy of macrophage-mediated inflammatory response depends on the coordinated expression of major factors. Their expression is finely regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Several studies have provided strong evidence that microRNAs play key roles in modulating macrophage activation, polarization, tissue infiltration, and resolution of inflammation. As a leading specialist in macrophage development, Creative Biolabs excels at reprogramming macrophages by microRNA. Our professional technical scientists, comprehensive Macrophage Therapeutics Development Platform, and abundant experience make us a perfect partner to help our clients in macrophage reprogramming.

Macrophages Polarization and microRNAs

Macrophages serve as essential actors for both inflammatory responses to combat pathogen insult, tissue damage, as well healing responses. They are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophages can be polarized into classically activated macrophages (M1) or alternatively activated macrophages (M2) in response to certain stimuli. Genome-wide studies reveal profound

There are dynamic changes at gene loci associated with macrophage polarization in genome-wide studies. These changes resulted in the coordinated action of distinct signaling pathways and transcription factors. microRNAs are small (22-24 nt) non-coding RNA sequences that interact with the 3' UTRs of gene transcripts, suppressing their translation or driving their degradation. They are indispensable in regulating gene expression in both innate and adaptive immune cells. Previous studies have identified specific subsets of microRNAs differentially expressed under distinct polarizing conditions, and investigated the effect of miRNA deregulation in macrophage polarization. A study identified 109 miRNAs differentially expressed in human and murine polarized macrophages, focusing in particular on miR-155, miR-181, and miR-451 in M1 macrophages, and miR-146a, miR-125a, and miR-145-5p in M2 macrophages. Subsequent studies confirmed the higher expression of miR-155 in M1-polarized macrophages and of miR-146a, miR-125b, and miR-127 in M2-polarizing conditions.

Fig.1 miRNAs’ roles in macrophage activation and polarization. (Curtale, Marcello & Massimo, 2019)Fig.1 Pleiotropic role of miRNAs in the regulation of macrophage activation and polarization.1

Reprogramming Macrophage by microRNA at Creative Biolabs

microRNAs have been demonstrated to be pivotal players actively participating in the modulation of the early phase as well as the resolution of inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that several microRNAs are not just M1 phenotypic markers, but had a role in driving macrophage polarization. For instance, the inhibition of miR-155 can result in impaired M1 polarization and its overexpression induced a re-polarization toward an M1 phenotype of M2 macrophages. Research scientists at Creative Biolabs are experts in employing microRNA for macrophage reprogramming and can assist clients based on their requirements. Creative Biolabs provides efficiencies with shorter timelines to accelerate our clients' macrophage development projects.

Based on scientific expertise, Creative Biolabs can highly customized solutions for macrophage reprogramming by microRNA to address our clients' specific needs and issues. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or directly send us an inquiry.


  1. Curtale, Graziella, Marcello Rubino, and Massimo Locati. "MicroRNAs as molecular switches in macrophage activation." Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019): 434817.
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