Rapid identification of macrophages and their polarization states provides valuable information for drug discovery, toxicological screening, and immunotherapy evaluation. Equipped with a team of skilled scientists with an innovative Platform, which is designed specifically to meet very challenging requirements in macrophage development, Creative Biolabs offers fast, reliable support for our clients' macrophage marker development projects.
Macrophages play a crucial role in orchestrating immune responses against pathogens and foreign materials. In response to environmental cues, macrophages have remarkable plasticity and perform a wide range of immune- and homeostasis-related functions. Due to their plasticity, macrophages can polarize into a spectrum of activated phenotypes. The two extremes in the spectrum are represented by the pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. M1 macrophages are related to inflammation, including secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, engulfment of foreign entities, generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and assistance in T-helper type1 (Th1) cell responses to fight infection. Conversely, M2 macrophages perform anti-inflammatory and wound repair functions. The complexity associated with macrophage activation limits the ability of current biomarker-based methods to rapidly identify unique activation states. Moreover, breaking the balance of M1 and M2 states can result in many health problems, such as infections, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Given the significance and complexity of the roles macrophages play in biology and disease, it is necessary to develop markers that distinguish macrophages from other cells or identify their polarization state, which can help select therapeutic approaches.
Fig.1 Macrophage polarization and specific functions of M1 and M2 macrophages. (Saqib, 2018)
Macrophages engulf and digest microbes, cellular debris, and various disease-associated cells throughout the body. To characterize macrophages comprehensively, the key is using reliable Common Markers to distinguish macrophages from other cell types. For the two extremes M1 and M2 of macrophages, quantification of cell surface markers, transcription factors and cytokine profiles are usually used to distinguish between them. However, the complexity of the process of their activation limits the usage of current markers. Therefore, more Novel M1/M2 Macrophage Markers are needed.
Creative Biolab has developed several transcriptome-based approaches, including RNAseq, single-cell RNAseq, and microarrays, for the identification of novel macrophage markers. Macrophage-specific markers and M1/M2 macrophage-specific markers can be identified effectively through this high-throughput system. Moreover, to increase the accuracy of the results, some auxiliary methods, such as subcellular localization analysis, immune function analysis and immunohistochemistry assay, are included.
Professional technical scientists and abundant experience make Creative Biolabs a perfect partner to help our clients with the development of new macrophage markers. Through our high-throughput system, clients could accelerate their research with the most comprehensive view of macrophages and their polarization. For more detailed information, please feel free to contact us or send us your inquiry or question.
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