Reprogramming Macrophages by Nanoghosts

Based on microenvironmental stimuli, most naive macrophages (M0) can polarize into two main activated states, pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. The polarized macrophage can also be reprogrammed by reversing its phenotype. Macrophage reprogramming is crucial for their function. Cell membrane-derived nanoghosts are a new class of nanoparticles with good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity, and have been demonstrated in the fields of macrophage reprogramming. With Ph.D. level scientists and extensive experience in Macrophage Therapeutics Development, Creative Biolabs is proud to offer custom macrophage reprogramming service by employing macrophage cell membrane-derived nanoghosts.

Background of Macrophage Reprogramming

Macrophages are innate immune cells that reside in almost all tissues in the body and play key roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and clearance of apoptotic cells. Polarized macrophages M1 and M2 play different roles in immune regulation, inflammation, tissue remodeling, proliferation, and metabolism. For instance, M1 macrophages are key effector cells to resist intracellular pathogens and tumor growth, while M2 macrophages are associated with immunosuppression, promotion of tissue remodeling and tumor progression. Macrophage reprogramming plays an important role in the maintenance of immune system homeostasis and provides solutions for treating associated diseases.

Nanoghosts are synthesized through the self-assembly of the purified cell membrane. Nanoghosts derived from monocytes, mesenchymal stem cells and even non-tumorigenic epithelial cells have been utilized as delivery vehicles and showed impressive therapeutic effects against tumor growth. Cell membrane-derived nanoghosts have been shown to provide greater nanoparticles stability, which can be potentially used in in vivo drug delivery applications. These nanoghosts in the 100-200 nm range are produced by cell lysis and serial ultracentrifugation and have a biologically intact bilayer membrane. Studies have shown that macrophages cell membrane-derived nanoghosts could be used for reprogramming macrophages with high efficacy and efficiency and have their potential application in clinical settings.

Schematics of the preparation process of the macrophage cell membrane-camouflaged mesoporous silica nanocapsules and subsequent in vivo cancer therapy.Fig.1 Schematics of the preparation process of the macrophage cell membrane-camouflaged mesoporous silica nanocapsules and subsequent in vivo cancer therapy. (Xuan, 2015)

Reprogramming Macrophages by Nanoghosts at Creative Biolabs

Macrophages cell membrane-derived nanoghosts are non-toxic to mammalian cells. Their reprogramming capability comes from the cytokines/chemokines that are associated with the membrane. Professional technical scientists at Creative Biolabs are proficient at the synthesis and characterization of nanoghosts from macrophage cell lines. The size of nanoghosts is controlled to be around 100-200 nm through the serial extrusion step. Our experienced scientists have accumulated rich experience in employing macrophages cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for macrophage reprogramming. The reprogramming efficiency can be assessed by cytokine analysis and immunostaining of reprogrammed cells. We are dedicated to offering high-quality custom macrophage reprogramming services to meet our clients' R&D timeline and budget.

Creative Biolabs is committed to providing our clients with high-quality macrophage reprogramming services to promote the progress of macrophage development projects. For more information on reprogramming macrophages by nanoghosts, please feel free to contact us and further discuss it with our scientists.


  1. Krishnamurthy, S.; et al. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2016, 8(13):6981-5.
  2. Xuan, M.; et al. Macrophage cell membrane camouflaged mesoporous silica nanocapsules for in vivo cancer therapy. Advanced healthcare materials. 2015, 4(11):1645-52.
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