Blockade of M2 Macrophage

Macrophages play critical roles in the regulation of homeostasis, inflammation, and antitumor immunity in a tissue-specific and context-dependent manner. These cells are commonly classified into classically activated (M1) macrophages and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M2 macrophages are able to impair antitumor immunity, which in turn contributes to the immunosuppressive tumor niche. Blockade of the key factors involved in M2 macrophage polarization is an efficient way to inhibit M2 polarization. Experienced in the research of macrophage polarization and with a dedicated commitment to the scientific community, Creative Biolabs has developed several strategies for the blockade of M2 macrophage. Our multidisciplinary scientists will work together closely to address these scientific and technical challenges.

Factors Involved in M2 Macrophage Polarization

In tumors, infiltrating macrophages, also known as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), present an M2 state, exerting an inhibitory effect on the cytotoxic function of tumor-killing immune cells M2 macrophage polarization involves tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)6. STAT3 and STAT6 are two main transcription factors that have been largely reported to block M2 polarization. STAT3 phosphorylation on tyrosine is mainly regulated by members of Janus-activated kinases (JAK), while its phosphorylation on serine is commonly regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinases. STAT6 mediates the transcriptional activation of a range of M2-specific genes, including arginase 1, resistin-like α, mannose receptor 1, chitinase-like protein 3, and the chemokine genes CCL17 and CCL24. The essential positive role of STAT6 in macrophage M2 polarization is reflected by the enhanced expression of M2 genes in STAT6-overexpressing macrophages, whereas the ablation of STAT6 abolishes M2 gene expression.

Fig.1 Blockade of M2 Macrophage. (Creative Biolabs Original)

Strategies for the Blockade of M2 Macrophage at Creative Biolabs

By assembling top-class scientific experts and integrating a cutting-edge Macrophage Therapeutics Development Platform as well as industry-leading expertise in the research of macrophage polarization, Creative Biolabs is committed to providing comprehensive services in the blockade of M2 macrophage. Our scientists have perfected our technical pipelines for the blockade of M2 macrophage using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, STAT3 inhibitors or STAT6 inhibitors.

Creative Biolabs is pleased to share our knowledge in the blockade of M2 macrophage to facilitate our clients' research and project development. We offer turn-key or ala carte services customized to our client's needs. Please contact us for more information.


  1. Genard, G.; et al. Reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages with anticancer therapies: radiotherapy versus chemo-and immunotherapies. Frontiers in immunology. 2017, 8:828.
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